Teaser Electric arc furnace Iron & Steel

Revised Customer process electric arc furnace in the Iron & Steel sector

Electric arc furnace

Production of cast iron with electric energy

Process Description

About 30% of the world's steel is produced in electric arc furnaces. The smelting of scrap and sponge iron, with or without the accompaniment of pig iron takes place in steel works by means of electric arc furnaces. Significant developments have taken place over recent decades in transformers, panels, furnace geometry, foam slag technology, automation, electrode regulation, hydraulics, and the use of oxygen, which have significantly improved the economic efficiency of the process.

An EAF consists of the hearth (refractory bricked lower part of the furnace vessel with tap hole), water-cooled panels, the lid with the electrodes, and the exhaust port. The oven is loaded with baskets from above by swivelling the lid and electrodes to the side. After the lid is closed and the electrodes retracted, the melting process begins. Electrical energy is converted into thermal energy by an electric arc between the electrode and the feedstock. The arc generates temperatures up to 3500°C and heats the molten steel up to 1800°C. Here, the converter is replaced by oxygen for refining.

 

The use of oxyfuel technology supports the process by replacing electrical energy with chemical combustion energy. At the end of the melting phase, oxygen is injected for refining.

Advantages:

  • Savings in electrical energy
  • Minimises batch times (tap to tap)
  • Shorter power-on times
  • Savings in electrode consumption 
  • Improvements in foam slag technology

Application example:

Operating data

 

Minimum

Maximum

Loading weight

[t]

20

200

Tapping weight

[t]

17,6

162

Output

[%]

78

94

Power on time

[min]

15

160

Power off time

[min]

6

46

Tap to tap time

[min]

35

203

Electrical energy

[kWh/t]

318

525

Oxygen combustion

[Nm³/t]

18

50

Natural gas consumption

[Nm³/t]

0

13

Total carbon consumption

[kg/t]

4

31

FeO in slag

[%]

28

46

Electrode combustion

[kg/t]

1

3,1

Tapping temperature

[°C]

1600

1720

 Energy consumption refers to tapping weight

Revised Application technology electric arc furnace in the Iron & Steel sector

Electric arc furnace gas utilisation

Carbon lances and tailormade super-sonic burners

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